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"fuck"



   "Fuck" does NOT stand for "for unlawful carnal knowledge" or "fornication under consent of the king".  It is not an acronym for anything at all.

   It is a very old word, recorded in English since the 15th century (few acronyms predate the 20th century), with cognates in other Germanic languages.  The Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang (Random House, 1994, ISBN
0-394-54427-7) cites Middle Dutch fokken = "to thrust, copulate with"; Norwegian dialect fukka = "to copulate"; and Swedish dialect focka = "to strike, push, copulate" and fock = "penis". Although German ficken may enter the picture somehow, it is problematic in having e-grade, or umlaut, where all the others have o-grade or zero-grade of the vowel.

   AHD1, following Pokorny, derived "feud", "fey", "fickle", "foe", and "fuck" from an Indo-European root *peig2 = "hostile"; but AHD2 and AHD3 have dropped this connection for "fuck" and give no pre-Germanic etymon for it.  Eric Partridge, in the 7th edition of Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (Macmillan, 1970), said that "fuck" "almost certainly" comes from the Indo-European root *peuk- = "to prick" (which is the source of the English words "compunction",  "expunge", "impugn", "poignant", "point", "pounce", "pugilist", "punctuate", "puncture", "pungent", and "pygmy"). Robert Claiborne, in The Roots of English: A Reader's Handbook of Word Origin (Times, 1989) agrees that this is "probably" the etymon.  Problems with such theories include a distribution that suggests a North-Sea Germanic areal form rather than an inherited one; the murkiness of the phonetic relations; and the fact that no alleged cognate outside Germanic has sexual connotations.

来源:http://alt-usage-english.org

"fuck"一词不代表“关于不法的肉欲知识”或者“国王允许下的私通”(有些人说fuck可能是这两句话的首字母缩写——译者注)

这不是一个古老的词汇,从15世纪始有记录(20世纪前出现几个缩写),在日耳曼语中有它的同源词。《兰登书屋历史辞典——美国俚语》(兰登书屋, 1994年, 国际标准书号:0-394-54427-7) 引用中世纪荷兰语fokken(意为“插入,与……交配”);挪威方言中的fukka(意为“交媾”);和瑞典方言中的focka(意为“插入,推进,交媾”)和fock(意为“阴茎”)。虽然德语的ficken可能也牵涉进来,但是在使用E发音还是元音变音,仍然存在问题,在这个位置其他单词都用O发音或叫0级元音。

《美国传统英语字典第一版》,按照伯克尼的说法, "feud", "fey", "fickle", "foe", and "fuck" 都源于印欧语的一个词根 *peig- (意为“敌对者”);但是《美国传统英语字典第二版》和《美国传统英语字典第三版》就去掉了与fuck之间的这个关联,也没给出原始日耳曼语的词根意思。艾里克·帕屈芝,在第七版的《俚语与非正式英语字典》(麦克米伦出版社,1970年)中写“fuck”可以“肯定”地说来源于印欧语的一个词根*peuk-,意为“刺,戳”(它是英语单词 "compunction", "expunge", "impugn", "poignant", "point", "pounce", "pugilist", "punctuate", "puncture", "pungent", and "pygmy"的起源)。罗伯特·克莱伯尼,在《英语词根:词的起源读者手册》(泰晤士报出版社,1989年)也赞同这个说法。而持这样推测的问题包括:北海地区的词形不同于遗传下来的那个词形的地区分布;音形联系的晦涩;日耳曼语以外没有所谓的跟性含义有关的同源词。

(翻译:大卫)

 

 

发布日期:2010-12-18    阅读 2079 次   
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