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jerry-built和jury-rigged



"Jury-rigged", which means "assembled in a makeshift manner", is attested since 1788.  It comes from "jury mast", a nautical term attested since 1616 for a temporary mast made from any available spar when the mast has broken or been lost overboard.  The OED dubiously recorded a suggestion that this was short for "injury mast", but recent dictionaries say that it is probably from Old French ajurie="help or relief", from Latin adiutare="to aid" (the source of the English word "adjutant").

   "Jerry-built", which the OED defines as "built unsubstantially of bad materials; built to sell but not last" is attested since 1869, and is said to have arisen in Liverpool.  It has been fancifully derived from the Biblical city of Jericho, whose walls came tumbling down; from the prophet Jeremiah, because he foretold decay; from the name of a building firm on the Mersey; from "jelly", signifying instability; from French jour="day" (workers paid day-by-day considered less likely to do a good job); and from the Romany gerry="excrement".  More likely, it is linked to earlier pejorative uses of the name Jerry ("jerrymumble", to knock about, 1721; "Jerry Sneak", a henpecked husband, 1764; "jerry", a cheap beer house, 1861); and it may have been influenced by "jury-rigged".

    "Jerry" as British slang for "a German, especially a German soldier" is not attested until 1898 and is unconnected with "jerry-built".

来源:http://alt-usage-english.org

   "Jury-rigged" 在1788年首次被认证,它的意思是“临时配备的”。它来自于“jury mast”,它是在1616年被认证的一个航海词条,意思是当桅杆折断或丢失在海上时候,用任何一种船柱所替代的临时桅杆。《牛津英语大词典》带有怀疑地刊录了一种设想,认为这是"injury mast"的缩写,但是近期的一些词典中都写着它可能是来源于古老的法语adjurie,意思是“帮助或安慰”,也可能来自拉丁文adiutare,意思是“救援”(这个词是英语单词“助手”的来源。)

   "Jerry-built" 《牛津英语大词典》把它解释为“偷工减料,能卖出去但不结实的建筑”,首次被认证是在1869年,据说是出现在利物浦。该词被想象着源自于以下一些情况:源自于圣经城市耶利哥的先知耶利米,因为他预言了城墙坍塌,后来城墙坍塌了;源自于莫西城的一家建筑公司的名字;源自于“jelly(胶状物)”,这预示着不稳定;源自于法语词汇jour,意思是“天”(按天付工资的工人不太可能做出像样的工作);或者来源于吉普赛语gerry,意思是“粪便”。更有可能该词与人名Jerry早期的贬义用法有联系,(“jerrymumble”在1721年用作“闲逛”之意;“Jerry Sneak”1764年用作“惧内的丈夫”解;“jerry”在1861年用来指“廉价的啤酒屋”);该词也有可能受到“jury-rigged”一词的影响。

    直到1898年"Jerry" 才当做英语俚用来指“德国人,尤其指德国士兵”并且跟"jerry-built"一词没啥联系。

   (翻译:大卫)

 

 

发布日期:2010-12-14    阅读 2774 次   
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